BALINESE ARTS AND CULTURE A flash understanding of Concept and Behavior

Jan 20, 2010 | Artikel

By: I Ketut Murdana

Balinese culture has been trusted of the world, the one of it is the uniques. That unique processed continuously in a dynamic that can forms the identity and still alive until now. This is runs evolutively as the Balinese people guidance that hold it strongly balance principle or rta (balance rule). Those principle are manifests “the union” of human mind that is balance and harmony to something different or opposite; for example the life union of body and mind, people with nature and the environment (macro cosmos and micro cosmos), the real world union (sekala) and unreal (niskala), the combination with a something contrast (colors combination in pengider buana) and etc.

Nature or the world for Balinese people as the balances, for example bhur, bhuah, shwah (hydrosphere-lithosphere-atmosphere), the balance of nature elements Panca Maha Bhuta are apah, teja, bayu, akasa and pertiwi (water, fire, wind, sky and earth) are kept harmonyly can become the friend to reach body and mind perfect life. This is can unity in every culture phenomenon also Balinese art. Kaler Surata say that the balances is a rta (nature rule) that is consist of upetti, shititi and praline (creator, keeper and destroyer). The three unity in a Ongkara or Umkara: Endless truth. The meaning is a island which the society ready to do the any actions to uphold The truth, as the source of endless truth (Kaler Surata, 1999: 29).

Bali island is become the Bhuana Padma symbol by Empu Kuturan, it is means that Bali island as the symbol of the universe sthana Hyang Widhi. By the symbol’s power Bali could become as spirit power always to do dharma or holy behavior in every ground span of Bali. Back grounding from this concept Bali island nature is seen as the great place of the God, that can hold the balances of the world and the creation source. All the mountain, lake, river, wellspring source, sea, the wind direction is assumed as sethana (place) of Gods. God who keeps all of wind direction is called as Dewata Nawa Sanga that can keep the stability and give the save and peace. In it is effected the cosmos rule as the behavior anvil to arrange shelter space, custom, arts and environment of Balinese society.

Jiwa atmaja said that the creation of painting art, dances, architecture is cosmic element that is placed on the balance rule that build totality. The elements do not be righted show the opposition with the cosmic rule. Based on the cosmic rule it looks like give the protection and power to the art environment, exactly at the time of the art touch the elements of foreign culture. (Jiwa Atmaja, 1988: 10).

This opinion shows that the base concept of Balinese art has characteristic vertical and horizontal. Vertical has the meaning of the faith that the beauty and art are come from the God Almighty and give back in the form of worship. Art has important meaning in every religion ceremony, even the religion ceremony cannot be finished without the art coming, for example leather puppet show, Sidakarya mask and so on. Horizontally has the meaning that give the benefit for all the people, therefore openly to the foreign culture. The combination of vertical and horizontal line forming cross line (+) in Balinese language is called tampak dara. Cross line or tampak dara like this often used to avoid the devils, for example: placed in front of the house door is written with vine chalk, at the end of 2005 last Balinese society a caused of commotion of colek pamor that trusted has magic power for the safety. Tampak dara line like this often used if someone has stomachache, out of breath and so on, that is written with vine chalk or charcoal that in the patient’s house. The motive of cross line or tampak dara also used as the world red cross. The development of tampak dara line motive become Suastika form, used as Hinduism symbol that symbolizing of earth and sun rotation.

That glorious values represent heritage from all Balinese ancestor which have formed an unity of family group (clan) that is so called pungkusan, soroh or wangsa. According to Singgih Wikarman: Babad source, Usana, Prasasti, Bancangah and etc. Balinese ancestor always connected with the holy and great names from the empires of Java like: Medang Kemulan, Kediri, Singasari, and the last is Majapahit. Moreover often connected to the Gods even the Great Creator (Dewa Brahma, or Sang Hyang Pasupati) until now sit in the land of Bali island. Beside that a part of mountains is placed by Original Bali people. Original Bali people according to the culture history, they come from Tonkin gulf, Kochin China (Singgih Wikarma, 1998: 3-4). Pungkusan, Soroh or Wangsa are interact and mixed esteeming each other difference in an unity of custom village bound by Pura Kahyangan Tiga (Pura Desa or Balai Agung, Pura Puseh and Pura Dalem). Until now this unity able support the Balinese custom, culture and arts in the era growth and the relation with external culture.

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Kiriman : Dr. Kadek Suartaya, S.S.Kar., M.Si. Abstrak Dinamika zaman yang terkait dengan gelombang transformasi budaya memunculkan perkembangan, pergeseran dan perubahan terhadap sendi-sendi kehidupan masyarakat Bali. Spesialisasi pada suatu bidang tertentu melahirkan...